Class started on Monday. See post titled Next Course – Civil War Strategy and Tactics.
We’re beginning, and appropriately so, by exploring Jomini’s influence. Baron Antoine-Henri de Jomini. If you search for him on my blog, you’ll see quite a few references including a series I did titled “Jomini on the Nature of War.”
Part I: Introduction is available here,
Part II: The Burgeoning Military Theorist here,
Part III: The Founder of Modern Strategy here,
Part IV: The Basics here,
Part V: Lines of Operation here, and
Part VI – The Conduct of War here.
Also, Scientific Optimism: Jomini and the U.S. Army
Those of you who follow my postings know that I’ve ruminated a bit on Jomini (pictured above). You can find the complete list of related posts here. For those who find discussion of Jomini and Clausewitz interesting, I wanted to pass along a link to an excellent essay by Major Gregory Ebner titled “Scientific Optimism: Jomini and the U.S. Army” available here. Ebner, in an essay that appears as a featured article in The U.S. Army Professional Writing Collection, makes a case for how the U. S. Army presents itself as a Clausewitzian organization at upper levels but is “firmly rooted in the ideals of Antoine-Henry Jomini” at the tactical and operational levels. He posits that focus on “good staff work and the military decision-making process (MDMP)” reflects a reliance on military science and method over the application of genius as espoused by Clausewitz. He further suggests that the Principles of War developed by the U.S. Amy was an encoding of Jomini in the form of doctrine. This essay is instructive to the study of military philosophers and military thought on several fronts. First, for the military philosophy student, it reinforces the theories of both Clausewitz and Jomini and would therefore make an excellent reading assignment after studying the primary works of both theorists. Second, it provides insight into the extent to which the largest army in present day has adopted and incorporated the ideas of both men at the doctrinal and operational levels.
For more information:
This post continues the series of “Jomini on the Nature of War.” Part I: Introduction is available here, Part II: The Burgeoning Military Theorist here, Part III: The Founder of Modern Strategy here, Part IV: The Basics here, Part V: Lines of Operation here, and Part VI – The Conduct of War here.
Returning to Baron Antoine de Jomini (right), I wanted to explore the extent to which his strategies influenced those who held leadership positions during the American Civil War. A modest survey of the literature revealed some disagreement.
Historian James L. Morrison, Jr. in his article “Educating the Civil War Generals: West Point, 1833 - 1861,″ pointed out that exposure to Jomini came during “Professor Dennis H. Mahan’s [pictured below] course, Civil and Military Engineering and the Science of War which all First Classmen studied daily.”[i]
Dennis H. Mahan
Photo Credit: Wiki Commons
But only nine hours were given to the study of the science of war and Morrison contends that this was entirely too brief an exposure to have had any lasting impact. That said, he acknowledges that some alumni of the military academy studied Jomini thoroughly including Beauregard, Lee, Halleck, and McClellan.
“…The same cannot be said for the great majority of their colleagues who had neither the opportunity nor the inclination to continue their strategic studies after graduation. Probably Sherman was more representative of the typical graduate when he denied that Jomini had affected his thoughts or actions in the war.” [ii]
I’ll discuss some additional viewpoints in the next post.
A word on Dennis H. Mahan. A military theorist in his own right, Mahan was instrumental in developing the engineering-focused curriculum at West Point. Some may recall that he was the father of naval strategist Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan. The elder’s obituary, which appeared on September 17, 1871 in New York Times here, reveals that Professor Mahan committed suicide by jumping in the Hudson River from the deck of the steamboat Mary Powell in such a way that he was hit by the wheel. He was apparently despondant about being forced to retire. A sad end to a remarkable career. Professor Mahan’s memoir is available online here.
Mary Powell, Queen of the HudsonPhoto Credit: Hudson River Maritime Museum
[i, ii] James L. Morrison, Jr., “Educating the Civil War Generals: West Point, 1833 – 1861,” Military Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 3. (Oct., 1974), pp. 109.
This post continues the series of “Jomini on the Nature of War.” Part I: Introduction is available here, Part II: The Burgeoning Military Theorist here, Part III: The Founder of Modern Strategy here, Part IV: The Basics here, and Part V: Lines of Operation here.
Jomini cautions that there are a number of other circumstances that can affect the “nature and conduct of war” including that…
- “a state may simply make war against another state
- a state may make war against several states in alliance with each other
- a state in alliance with another may make war upon a single enemy
- a state may be either the principal party or an auxiliary
- in the latter case a state may join in the struggle at its beginning or after it has commenced.
- the theater of war may be upon the soil of the enemy, upon that of an ally, or upon its own.
- if the war be one of invasions, it may be upon adjacent or distant territory: it may be prudent and cautious, or it may be bold and adventurous
- it may be a national war, either against ourselves or against the enemy
- the war may be a civil or a religious war.”[i]
He insists that war should always “be conducted according to the great principles of the art; but [that] great discretion must be exercised in the nature of the operations to be undertaken, which should depend upon the circumstances of the case.”[ii] “A regiment should always fight in nearly the same way; but commanding generals must be guided by circumstances and events.”[iii]
So the “principles of strategy are always the same,” but differences occur with the “political part of war, which is modified by the tone of communities, by localities, and by the characters of men at the head of states and armies.”[iv]
Jomini outlines these specific circumstances in a description of each type of war and the principles and rules to follow (or not follow) in every one. For example, in “Offensive Wars to Reclaim Rights,” he indicates that no rules can be laid down but to watch and to profit by every circumstance.[v] This leads to his conclusion that “war knows no rules.”[vi]
“Military science rests upon principle which can never be safely violated in the presence of an active and skillful enemy, while the moral and political part of war presents these variations. Plans of operations are made as circumstances may demand: to execute these plans, the great principles of war must be observed.”[vii]
[i] Jomini, Antoine Henri de. The Art of War, trans. by G. H. Mendell and W. P. Craighill., Special Edition, (El Paso: EL Paso Norte Press. 2005), 10-11.
[iv] Ibid., 13.
[v] Ibid., 12.
This post continues the series of “Jomini on the Nature of War.” Part I: Introduction is available here, Part II: The Burgeoning Military Theorist here, Part III: The Founder of Modern Strategy here, and Part IV: The Basics here.
“Principles were guides to action, not infallible mathematical calculations. The specific application of principles would vary with the thousand changing physical and psychological factors that made war ‘a great drama.’ Genius would defeat the military pendant, just as talent and experience would outdo the bumbling novice. But the principles themselves, whose truth is demonstrated by all military experience, could not be ignored without peril and, when followed, had ‘almost invariably’ (Presque en tout temps) brought victory.”[i]
Jomini’s arguments for “immutable ‘principle’ of war” rested on the concept of “lines of operation” by which he meant…
- “where an armed force fights,
- for what objective, and
- in what force relative to the total available military power of the state.”[ii]
He identified two types of lines of operation, those that are:
- deserts, and
- sheer distance through, over, and around which military operations must be conducted.”[iii]
- Also included in this category are man-made, permanent structures that constrict the conduct of warfare including: fortifications, military bases, political boundaries and road networks.[iv]
- Concerned exclusively with strategic choice about:
- where to fight,
- to what purpose,
- in what force, etc.[v]
[i - v] John Shy, “Jomini,” in Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, ed. Peter Paret (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 154, 166.
Photo: Union entrenchments near Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., 1864. 111-B-531. The National Archives.
Map: First Manasas
This post continues from Jomini on the Nature of War: Part I Introduction here, Part II The Burgeoning Military Theorist here, and Part III The Founder of Modern Strategy here. Please note links in blue lead to additional information on those topics.
Jomini was a list maker and a categorizer which influenced the form of his thoughts on the nature of war. His work, The Art of War, begins with a definition of the art of war in terms of five military branches: Strategy, Grand Tactics, Logistics, Engineering and Minor Tactics.
Strategy – “the art of properly directing masses upon the theater of war either for defense or for invasion; the art of making war upon the map.”
Grand Tactics – “the art of posting troops upon the battle-field according to the accidents of the ground, of bringing them into actions, and the art of fighting upon the ground, in contradistinction to planning upon a map.” It is “the maneuvering of an army upon the battle-field, and the different formations of troops for attack.”
Logistics - “the art of moving armies and the execution of strategical and tactical enterprises” and “comprises the means and arrangements which work out the plans of strategy and tactics.”
Engineering - “the attack and defense of fortifications.
Jomini adds a sixth branch which he calls, “Diplomacy in its relation to War.” This he envisions as the role of the statesman in war and particularly in those activities which lead up to it. He provides the criteria from which a statesman can conclude whether a war is “proper, opportune, or indispensable.” He lists succinctly and thoroughly his perspective on the reasons why a government would choose to enter into war:
- “To reclaim certain rights or to defend them;
- to protect and maintain the great interests of the state, as commerce, manufactures, or agriculture;
- to uphold neighboring states whose existence is necessary either for the safety of the government or the balance of power;
- to fulfill the obligations of offensive and defensive alliances;
- to propagate political or religious theories, to crush them out, or to defend them;
- to increase the influence and power of the state by acquisitions of territory;
- to defend the threatened independence of the state;
- to avenge insulted honor; or
- from a mania for conquest.”
Each reason becomes a “type” of war on which Jomini elaborates with examples from history. The type of war, he suggests, “influences in some degree the nature and extent of the efforts and operations necessary for the proposed end.”
Should you have interest in reading de Jomini’s The Art of War, it is available both on Google Books here and at Project Gutenberg here.
Jomini, Antoine Henri de. The Art of War, trans. by G. H. Mendell and W. P. Craighill., Special Edition, (El Paso: EL Paso Norte Press. 2005), 9.
A map for the w:en:Battle of the Gebora, in 19 February 1811. Source can be found here. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document (refers to map) under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation license, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation license“.
This post continues from Jomini on the Nature of War: Part I Introduction here and Part II The Burgeoning Military Theorist here. Please note links in blue lead to additional information on those topics.
Baron Antoine-Henri de Jomini, who was a product of the Napoleonic era, attempted to make warfare “scientific.”[i] According to Shy, this led him to reduce the study of war “…to a preoccupation with ‘strategy’ – a set of prescriptive techniques for military analysis and planning that has continued to dominate thinking on the subject.”[ii]
“…His general approach to the problem of war, abstracting it from its political and social context, emphasizing decision-making rules and operations results, turning warfare into a huge game of chess, has been surprisingly durable. Jomini more than Clausewitz, deserves the dubious title of founder of modern strategy.”[iii]
- “strategy is the key to warfare
- all strategy is controlled by invariable scientific principles
- these principles prescribe offensive action to mass forces against weaker enemy forces at some decisive point in strategy is to lead to victory.”[iv]
What is a decisive point?
One whose attack or capture would imperil or seriously weaken the enemy.[v]
More in next post….
[i, ii, iii, iv, v] John Shy, “Jomini,” in Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, ed. Peter Paret (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 144 – 146.
This post continues from Part I here. Please note links in blue lead to additional information on those topics.
Antoine-Henri Jomini (below right) was born on March 6, 1779 in the small town of Payerne (Payerne church pictured right) in western Switzerland. His family was an old and influential one; his father Benjamin active in local politics. Jomini grew up with the French Revolution and the sight of French soldiers was something he was familiar with even as a boy. He was a teenager working in banking in Paris when the Swiss Revolution of 1798 broke out, largely instigated by the French at the proding of exiled Swiss radicals. Jomini’s father joined the revolutionary cause and served in various political roles in the Helvetian Republic. Antoine-Henri caught the fever of revolution as well and returned home where, at the age of nineteen, he became the secretary to the Swiss minister of war. He attained military rank (captain) and a reputation for being bright, diligent, and full of ambition. By twenty-one, he had command of a battalion. [i]
It was during this time that he began a vigorous study of military history. John Shy suggests that Jomini was…
“obsessed by visions of military glory, with himself imitating the incredible rise of Bonaparte (below right) who was only ten years his senior, but in a telling phrase Jomini remembers being possessed, even then, by “le sentiment des principes” – the Platonic faith that reality lies beneath the superficial chaos of the historical moment in enduring and invariable principles, like those of gravitation and probability. To grasp those principle, as well as to satisfy the more primitive emotional needs of ambition and youthful impatience, was what impelled him to the study of war. Voracious reading of military history and theorizing from it would reveal the secret of French victory.” [ii]
The Luneville Treaty of 1801 (see exerpts here) ended the Napoleonic Wars and Jomini returned to Paris where he maintained a devotion to the study and writing of military theory. He had been enthralled by Napoleon’s leadership. It is beyond disptue that the French had achieved a breakthrough in warfare and Jomini was about trying to find out how they had done it.
“Answering this question, persuasively and influentially, would be Jomini’s great achievement. The wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon generated a vast, receptive audience for the kind of clear, simple, reassuring explanation that he would offer. Drawing overtly on the prestige of ‘science’ and yet almost religious in its insistent evangelical appeal to timeless verities, Jomini’s answer to this troubling question seemed to dispel the confusion and allay much of the fear created by French military victories.” [iii]
By 1804, Jomini had completed his Traité des grandes opérations militaires (Treastise on Great Military Operations). He managed to ingratiate himself to General Michel Ney (right), leader of Bonaparte’s Sixth Corps, who had served for a time as French viceroy in Switzerland. Ney helped him to publish this first book. It would find its way to Napoleon and Jomini’s life would be forever changed. [iv]
Jomini’s principles would also find their way to West Point in the years preceeding the American Civil War. In Part III, I’ll discuss what those principles were.
[i] Hugh Chisholm, The Encyclopedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. 11th Ed, Volume XV. (Cambridge, England: At the University Press, 1911), 495. Accessed online 2/23/2008: here.
[ii, iii, iv] John Shy, “Jomini,” in Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, ed. Peter Paret (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 144 – 149.
Photos: Public Domain – Wiki Commons
Baron Antoine-Henri de Jomini
I’d like to begin a series of posts on Baron Antoine-Henri de Jomini. I had the opportunity to study Jomini along with other military strategists in a previous course, Great Military Philosophers which you can read more about on the courses page here, and wanted to come back to that material to dive in a bit deeper in. Why Jomini you might ask and what has he to do with the American Civil War? John Shy, in an excellent essay on Jomini that appears in one of my favorite books, Makers of Modern Strategy from Machieavelli to the Nuclear Age, wrote that ”three names that stand out in the formative period of modern military thought: Napoleon, Clausewitz, and Jomini.”[i]
Everyone has heard of Napoleon. Many familiar with history have heard of the Prussian Carl von Clausevitz. But Jomini remains largely unknown outside of the military. And yet, Shy contends, Jomini’s “influence on both military theory and popular conceptions of warfare has been enormous.” [ii] His theories were known by militarists in many countries and certainly in the United States both before, during and after the American Civil War. More to come…
[i], [ii] John Shy, “Jomini,” in Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, ed. Peter Paret (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), 144.
Photos are in the public domain. Source: Wiki commons.
I wrapped up reading Lincoln and His Generals by T. Henry Williams and found it quite good.
I confess to being impressed by the extent to which Lincoln became an able strategist by the mid-point of the war. No doubt contributing to this was Halleck’s liaise-faire attitude. Lacking a strong military leader and much in the way of battle successes, Lincoln obviously felt compelled to step in and fill the strategic voids for his armies.
I was also struck by the characteristics that Lincoln valued and devalued in his generals. The lesson would serve many aspiring to leadership today. The takeaway?
Do the best you can with what you’ve been given.
Communicate minimally but effectively “up.”
Respect and follow the leadership of the man in charge when it is offered. Don’t argue with him excessively.
Don’t aspire to take his job, at least overtly.
Don’t criticize or blame others. Respect your subordinates enough to let them do their jobs.
Do not overly criticize them either. Control yourself and your emotions.
Be manically focused on getting the job at hand done.
Be informed by the past but fully engaged in the realities of the present.
For Grant and Lincoln, this latter point meant something more than merely implementing Jominian tactics. It appears that together, they evolved toward the modern notion of war as “total” in Clausewitzian terms. Is it possible that only Lincoln saw this truth in the war’s earliest years? I say yes.
I ran across an excellent monograph yesterday by Dr. Christopher R. Gabel titled “Railroad Generalship: Foundations of Civil War Strategy.” It is available in its entirety on the Command and General Staff College’s Combined Arms Research Library here. It includes maps and illustrations.
The following is the foreward by Jerry D. Morelock , Colonel, Field Artillery and Director of the Combat Studies Institute.
“According to an old saying, “amateurs study tactics; professionals study logistics.” any serious student of the military profession will know that logistics constantly shape military affairs and sometimes even dictate strategy and tactics. This excellent monograph by Dr. Christopher Gable shows that the appearance of the steam-powered railroad had enormous implications for military logistics, and thus for strategy, in the American Civil War. Not surprisingly, the side that proved superior in “railroad generalship,” or the utilization of the railroads for military purposes, was also the side that won the war.”
Gabel provides some astonishing statistics which illustrate why railroads challenged traditional strategic direction during the Civil War. He contends that the net effect of “the advent of the steam-powered railroad” was a boost in logistical output by at least a factor of ten. The impact on strategy in the Civil War was staggering. “Most notably, the railroad increased enormously the geographical scale of military operations.” Armies got larger. Sherman’s offensive campaign used 100,000 men and 35,000 animals. His supply line consisted of a single-track railroad extending 473 miles from Atlanta to his main supply base at Louisville. Sherman estimated that this rail line did the work of 36,800 wagons and 220,800 mules!”
For those of you really into military strategy, Gabel provides a simple yet effective illustration of “interior lines” and “exterior lines” and why railroads sometimes helped and other times hindered Civil War strategists who tried to use Jomini/Napoleonic concentration on “interior lines” strategy.
Regular followers of Wig Wags will know that I’ve posted on this fascinating topic before. See the page, Civil War Railroads here.
Christopher R. Gabel, “Railroad Generalship: Foundations of Civil War Strategy.” http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/gabel4/gabel4.asp#org, Accessed: May 24, 2009.
After a delay of several weeks due to work obligations (reorganization), I’m starting up on Monday the course CIvil War Strategy and Tactics with great enthusiasm. Having seen the syllabus, I know that we begin with a discussion/debate of Jomini’s (pictured right) influence on the strategies employed by both sides during the Civil War. We read, (or in my case read again, as this was assigned in the course Great Military Philosophers), John Shy’s masterful essay on Jomini that appears in Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Do a search on my blog on the word Jomini (or click here as I’ve done it for you) and you may be as amazed as I was on the number of posts I’ve made about him.
See previous posts about the class below outlining the texts we’ll be using.
I’ve added some titles to my Kindle 2. I own print versions of most of these but want to use the text-to-speech capabilities of the Kindle 2 to review them again while mobile.
- Title: The Art of War
- Author: Antoine de Jomini, Capt. G.H. Mendell, Lieut. W.P. Craighill
- Format: Kindle Edition
- File Size: 1387 KB
- Publisher: MyEclectica.com (March 14, 2008)
- Sold by: Amazon Digital Services
- Language: English
- ASIN: B00162BZDW
- Title: On War
- Author: Carl con Clausewitz
- Format: Kindle Edition
- File Size: 1088 KB
- Publisher: MyEclectica.com (February 22, 2008)
- Sold by: Amazon Digital Services
- Language: English
- ASIN: B00156DW1C
- Title: The Art of Commanding An Army
- Author: Frederick the Great
- Format: Kindle Edition
- File Size: 107 KB
- Publisher: MacMay (November 26, 2008)
- Sold by: Amazon Digital Services
- Language: English
- ASIN: B001M5U5O8
- Title: With Frederick the Great: A Story of the Seven Years’ War
- Author: G. A. Henty
- Format: Kindle Edition
- File Size: 586 KB
- Publisher: LeClue (February 7, 2008)
- Sold by: Amazon Digital Services
- Language: English
- ASIN: B0013L9678
Edward Hagerman. The American Civil War and the Origins of Modern Warfare: Ideas, Organization, and Field Command. Reprint. Indiana University Press, 1992.
In this important work on tactical and strategic military history, Edward Hagerman posits that the American Civil War marshaled in a new era in land warfare colored by the impacts of the Industrial Revolution. He argues that the complete command and control systems of armies was impacted by factors both occurring across the globe (i.e. technological developments in weaponry and transportation) and unique to America: its culture, geography, and history.
Hagerman is clear in setting two broad aims for the book. The first is to provide a new analysis of the “theory, doctrine, and practice of field fortification in the tactical evolution of trench warfare.” The second is to analyze the development of field transportation and supply and its impact of the movement and maneuvering of Civil War armies
Hagerman organizes his study around several themes. The first addresses the ideas and education that informed the American military including the influence of theorists such as Jomini, Clausewitz, and at West Point, Dennis Hart Mahan. Secondly he looks at the organizational change, or lack thereof, in the Army of the Potomac including an explanation of the educational orientation of its leaders. Thirdly he explores the Army of Northern Virginia and the culture and traditions which informed men of the south who entered the military. Next he dives into the emergence of trench warfare and the strategic and tactical evolution that resulted from it. And importantly, he finishes with the evolution of total war and the strategy of exhaustion.
This work should be of particular interest to military historians and even more so to those interested in the American Civil War and its impact on military logistics, the use of technology, weaponology, military tactical and strategic thought, and the concepts of modern warfare and its history.
There is an extensive notes section valuable to the serious student of military history. This is augmented by a “Works Cited” section including listings of primary sources. The introduction to the book provides an exceptional summary of many of the key factors that impacted the war.
Edward Hagerman brings to this study the credentials of academician. He was Associate Professor of History at York University in Toronto, Canada at the time of the book’s publication. He is also the recipient of the Moncado Prize of the Society of Military History.
Bonaparte, Napoleon. Napoleon on the Art of War. trans. and ed by Jay Luvaas. New York: Touchstone, 1999.
Jay Luvaas has pulled together in a single work what Napoleon never set to paper – a cohesive, single treatise on his philosophy of war. Luvaas, a respected military historian, accomplished this by reviewing, organizing, translating and editing Napoleon’s writings over the course of his life including much of his correspondence. He has organized the book into a series of essays so that it is structured not unlike the work of other military theorists. It begins with Napoleon’s views on creating a fighting force and preparations for war. This is followed by his thoughts on military education – an area about which Napoleon was passionate – particularly as related to the study of “great captains” of history: Alexander the Great, Hannibal, Caesar, Gustavus Adolphus, Turenne and Frederick the Great.. A section on “combat in arms” reveals Napoleon’s brilliance in changing up formations utilizing the men, animals and weaponry at hand. “Generalship and the art of command,” army organization, strategy, fortification, the army in the field, and the operational art are also examined through Napoleon’s writings with additional historical references as well as reference to correspondence written about major Napoleonic campaigns. This book is instructive to the study of military philosophers and military thought in that it provides insight into one of the most influential militarists in history. Military thought leaders such as Clausewitz and Jomini were contemporaries of Napoleon and highly influenced themselves by strategizing to fight with or against him. The book fills a rather noticeable gap and would be an excellent addition to any examination of military philosophers and strategists.
WOW! I am absolutely engrossed in Edward Hagerman’s The American Civil War and the Origins of Modern Warfare: Ideas, Organization, and Field Command. So much to say about Dennis Mahan (right) who I wrote about briefly here in my series on Jomini on the Nature of War (Part VII – Jomini’s Impact on Civil War Leadership). The National Park Service has a good bio on Mahan here.
I was very pleased to find online Mahan’s Elementary Treatise on Advance-Guard, Out-Post, and Detachment Service of Troops (1847) which Hagerman references in detail. This text was developed by Mahan for West Point and is considered the first tactics and strategy text created for the United States. I’ll add this to my primary sources links on Wig-Wags.
I can tell already that I’ll have many terms to add to the terms page. More to come of the French connection.
For those interested, I have posted the full program of study for my Masters program on “the courses” page here. It’s pretty solid at this point with the exception of an elective.
I’ve now purchased all required books for my upcoming course, “Studies in U.S. Military History” which starts April 7th. It’s a BIG stack. As is my custom, the full reading list is posted on “the courses” page. I had previously posted more detail on that course here. Recall that it covers most of America’s major wars and should provide an excellent survey. Can’t wait!
The review of Jomini’s theories on the art of war brought back some thoughts about the purpose of military philosophy itself and a debate we had in class over whether the conduct of war – in all of its complexity - should be reduced to principles, systems, models, tactics, etc. I suggested that war has both quantifiable and unquantifiable aspects. Arguably, it is the unquantifiable – human passions, values, and beliefs – that bring us to war as nations and as individuals. These same things certainly contribute to war’s unpredictability. To mitigate against the unpredictable, we focus on that which is quantifiable: structure, planning, training and execution. Systems, categorization and modeling allow better problem solving, preparation, and control. In war, as in any complex human endeavor, they can also reduce the risk of failure and conversely increase the probability of “the win.”
All of that said, I would suggest that there are deeper reasons why those responsible for the conduct of war focus on systems and organization and it has to do with their innate personalities. While there is debate about whether successfully military leadership can be attributed to personality type, I believe that there is good evidence that it can. David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates built upon the research of Carl Jung (archetypes), Katheryn Briggs, Isabel Myers (Myers-Briggs Trait Indicator), and a host of others in identifying distinct types of personalities. Keirsey introduced the concept of “temperaments” which, he suggests, “places a signature or thumbprint on each of one’s actions, making it recognizably one’s own.” While I won’t go into details on the building blocks of the temperaments, I will focus on description of those traits Keirsey suggests are often seen in commanders of the military and I’ll give an example from the Civil War. It’s fascinating stuff. More in the next post…
As I said in my post dated Feb. 9, 2008, my decision to add a kudos page could be perceived as an act of shameful self-aggrandisement. I prefer to think of it as a karmic act of thanks to those folks who have taken the time to make a nice comment either on my blog or theirs or in email. It’s my modest plug back to them. Where available, I have provided a link to their site. My thanks to you all for taking the time to shore up this novice blogger. And now, a few kind words from colleagues around the blogosphere…
from reader Rita..
This is a wonderful site, especially for history fanatics like myself. I found you while surfing for info on drummer boys in the Civil War. You’ve shared some really important information. Thanks for being so dedicated.
Posted on February 8, 2009 at 7:58 am
from reader “Mark”…
Your blog is absolutely fantastic, you should be very proud of it. I’ve recently found it and added it to my google reader list. I’ve started exploring your archives, will definitely leave more comments in the future. Thank you for putting this effort out there for people to share.
Posted on June 25, 2008 at 12:55 pm
from Eric Wittenberg…
at Rantings of a Civil War Historian and author of a number of books on Civil War…
Kudos to Rene Tyree March 18, 2008
I would be remiss if I didn’t give credit where it’s due and if I didn’t point out what a great job Rene Tyree’s doing over at the Wig Wags blog. Rene’s been posting some remarkably insightful and thoroughly fascinating material on Jominian military history that are some of the most informative blog posts I’ve ever seen.
Keep up the really great work, Rene.
An Excellent Series of Posts December 18, 2007
Rene Tyree has an excellent series of posts on his blog that began about a week ago on the causes of the Civil War. Tonight’s installment is part 8 of the series, and it’s really very well done and very insightful. I highly recommend the entire series to you [see Exploring Causes of the Civil War here], and wish that Dixie Dawn would take the time to read these posts, as the series constitutes one of the best and most concise analyses of the causes of the war I have yet seen.
Keep up the very good work, Rene.
Housekeeping Matters December 11, 2007
I have…added a link to Rene Tyree’s blog, called Wig Wags. Rene is a graduate student in military history at American Military University, where I used to teach. The stated objective of the blog is to organize course material, but it seems to go much deeper than that. I find Rene’s insights and observations interesting, so I’ve also added a link to Rene’s blog.
from Chris Wehner…
Wig-Wags is a great new blog by a military history student that I have added to the blogroll. This is easily one of the best new Civil War blogs around. Currently posted is an excellent discussion on the causes of the Civil War: Exploring Causes of the Civil War – Part VII: Political Discord, Slavery, and the Fight for Political Control. Welcome Wig-Wags.
from Mannie Gentile…
This [Railroad Generalship] is one of the most interesting ACW posts I’ve encountered in quite some time. Haupt is often mentioned in passing, but seldom with any depth. Thanks for a quick study.
from George Skoch…
Simply an AMAZING site…as eye-catching as it is useful. And very user-friendly. (June 5, 2008 )
[George has made maps for some of the country’s leading Civil War historians.]
from Harry Smeltzer…
at Bull Runnings…
..Rene over at Wig-Wags is doing a nice job documenting her journey through the Civil War and academia, so I’m adding her to the blogroll. Check it out.
from Daniel Sauerwein…
A week of history and history blogs November 21, 2007
This new blog is off to an interesting, but promising start. Wig-wags is a blog created by Rene Tyree, a graduate student in military history with an emphasis on the Civil War.
from Geoff Elliott…
Thank you for your take on Lincoln. I find it to be quite good and you’re off to a great start with your blog. I’m going to be adding it to my own blogroll. (Comment on Wig-wags, November 17, 2007)
from Don Caughey…
First of all, great job with the blog, I look forward to every visit…Keep up the good work.
[Comment on Wig-wags, November 20, 2007]
Found some good stuff at NYT last night that helped a lot. Thanks for the tip!
[Comment on Wig-wags, January 30, 2008]
from Heather Vallance…
After thanking Heather for listing WigWags on their Feb. 4th “This Week in Research Resources” post, Heather wrote…
Rene, it’s our pleasure. You have a great blog.
[Email, February 4, 2008]
from Andrew Duppstadt…
I enjoy your blog. Keep up the good work!
[Comment on Wig-Wags, February 3, 2008]
from reader History Lover…
“You have a wonderful blog, full of great info. I totally enjoyed it.”
from reader KD…
“…It really is cool to see how far and wide your newsletter/blog is appreciated. I just wanted to take this opportunity to also thank you. I save most of the Wig-Wag editions and it is a favorite newsletter, period.:-)
Thank you again for putting it together for all of us
from reader Laurence Freiheit…
I enjoyed reading this post!
(December 21, 2007 Comment on Wig-wags refering to On Historiography and Roman Civil War.)
from reader Mario Minichino…
Hi Rene, Wow what can I say great site!
(Comment on Wig-wags, December 9, 2007)
from reader Kacin Alexander…
I found your blog on google and read a few of your other posts. I just added you to my Google News Reader. Keep up the good work. Look forward to reading more from you in the future.
Kacin Alexander at officialdebate.com
from reader kmo…
A wonderful site, Rene. Great, you do the studying and all the hard work, and I’ll pop in here now & then to learn more about the Civil War.
(Comment on Wig-wags, November 6, 2007)
from reader Aline…
Great site! My civil war knowledge consists of having read the Shaara trilogy and touring the battlefields at Gettysburg. I’ll look forward to visiting occasionally to learn what you’re learning!
(Comment on Wig-Wags, November 6, 2007)
from reader Sherrine…
Lovely site Rene – touche!
(Comment on Wig-Wags, October 25, 2007)
When indulging in serious study, I find that I am introduced to a slew of words or terms I did not know. This may be an embarassing exercise, but I’m committed to start logging them here along with their definitions. It’s really about my needing to hammer them into my head and logging them here, where I can refer to them often, helps. I will include new words, phrases, specific terms, etc. Unless otherwise noted, all definitions should be attributed to the following: Oxford Pocket American Dictionary of Current English, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). I will provide the page number by the term.
Aegis – noun. 1) Protection: a child whose welfare is now under the aegis of the courts. 2) Sponsorship; patronage: a concert held under the aegis of the parents’ association. 3) Guidance, direction, or control: a music program developed under the aegis of the conductor. 4) Greek Mythology The goatskin shield or breastplate of Zeus or Athena. Athena’s shield carried at its center the head of Medusa. Source: aegis. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/aegis (accessed: March 01, 2008).
Age of the Masses - began in the late 1800s
Ahistorical – without concern for history or historical development; indifferent to tradition.
Ahnen – emphathetic intuition
[am-buh-skeyd] noun, verb, -cad⋅ed,
1. an ambush
–verb (used without object)
2. to lie in ambush.
–verb (used with object)
3. to attack from a concealed position; ambush.
1575–85; < MF embuscade, alter. (under influence of OF embuschier) of MF emboscade < OIt imboscata, fem. ptp. of imboscare, v. deriv. with in- of bosco wood, forest < Gmc *bosk- bush
Related forms: am⋅bus⋅cad⋅er, noun 
As used by Joseph L. Harsh in Taken at the Flood…
On this occasion, Jeb Stuart justified his reputation for alert reconnaissance. Almost instantaneously he perceived and reported to Lee the enemy’s rapid withdrawal. He also ordered Hampton to pursue and harass the Federal column retiring from Flint Hill toward the Chain Bridge. Into the hours of darkness, Hampton closely pressed the Federal tail under Sedgwick, lobbing shells into the panicky main body until the heavy casualties suffered by the 1st North Carolina Cavalry in an “ambuscade” laid by the 71st Pennsylvania Infantry bought breathing space for the retreating Federals. Meanwhile, in the center of the line, where Stuart had only Fitz Lee’s tired troopers, the Confederate horsemen pressed more gently and permitted Hooker to withdraw through the county seat virtually unscathed. Heros von Borcke, Stuart’s Prussian chief of staff (see his memoir online here), planted the Confederate colors on the courthouse green, while deliriously happy Southern sympathizers mobbed the troopers, and damsels showered Stuart with kisses. Jeb even found time to visit his friend and “spy” Antonia Ford. 
 ambuscade. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ambuscade (accessed: July 25, 2009).
 Joseph L. Harsh, Taken at the Flood : Robert E. Lee and Confederate Strategy in the Maryland Campaign of 1862 / [book on-line] (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1999, accessed 25 July 2009), 19; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102364729; Internet.
American New History School -
Anachronism – n. 1) The representation of someone as existing or something as happening in other than chronological, proper, or historical order. 2) One that is out of its proper or chronological order, especially a person or practice that belongs to an earlier time: “A new age had plainly dawned, an age that made the institution of a segregated picnic seem an anachronism” (Henry Louis Gates, Jr.) Source: Anachronistic. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Anachronistic (accessed: March 01, 2008).
Anachronistic - adj. pertaining to or containing an anachronism.
Anglophone – n. An English-speaking person, especially one in a country where two or more languages are spoken.
Annales School -
Annaliste – member of the Annales School of historical thought.
Apologia – n. A formal defense or justification.
Arianism - n. The doctrines of Arius, denying that Jesus was of the same substance as God and holding instead that he was only the highest of created beings, viewed as heretical by most Christian churches.
Arminianism – Ar·min·i·an·ism /ɑrˈmɪniəˌnɪzəm/ noun Theology. the doctrinal teachings of Jacobus Arminius or his followers, esp. the doctrine that Christ died for all people and not only for the elect. Compare Calvinism (def. 1).
[Origin: 1610–20; J. Armini(us) + -an + -ism] Source: arminianism. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/arminianism (accessed: April 05, 2008).
Asceticism – the practices of the ascetic; rigorous self-denial; extreme abstinence; austerity.
Atheism - n. the theory or belief that God does not exist. (p.42)
Augustinian – adj. 1. Of or relating to Saint Augustine of Hippo or his doctrines. 2. Being or belonging to any of several religious orders following or influenced by the rule of Saint Augustine.
noun 1. A follower of the principles and doctrines of Saint Augustine.
2. A monk or friar belonging to any of the Augustinian orders.
Cant – noun 1. Angular deviation from a vertical or horizontal plane or surface; an inclination or slope. 2. A slanted or oblique surface. 3. A thrust or motion that tilts something. 4. The tilt caused by such a thrust or motion. 5. An outer corner, as of a building.
Castrametation – \Cas`tra*me*ta”tion\, n. [F. castram['e]tation, fr. L. castra camp + metari to measure off, fr. meta limit.] (Mil.) The art or act of encamping; the making or laying out of a camp. Source: Castrametation. Dictionary.com. Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Castrametation (accessed: March 23, 2008).
While researching the influence of Jomini on the conduct of the American Civil War, I ran across an article by James L. Morrison, Jr., (Professor, History, Emeritus, York College of Pennsylvania) titled, “Educating the Civil War Generals: West Point, 1833 – 1861″ which appeared in Military Affairs. He outlines the curriculum for students who would have made up a large part of the war’s leadership. It was heavily skewed toward science and engineering. But the courses on the study of the science of war included the following topics:
order of battle
- castrametation [misspelled in the text as castramentation]
attack and defense, and
the principles of strategy.”[i]
Castrametation caught my eye. Webster provides some insight into the origins of the word.
A Military Dictionary and Gazetteer (first published in 1881 under title: A military and naval encyclopedia and available on Google Books here), puts a slightly different spin on it with the following definition:
“Castrametation. Is the art of laying out camps, and of placing the troops so that the different arms of the service shall afford support to each other in the best manner.”[iii]
I have added as a new word to “the terms” page here.
[i] James L. Morrison, Jr., “Educating the Civil War Generals: West Point, 1833 – 1861,” Military Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 3. (Oct., 1974), pp. 109.
[ii] Castrametation. Dictionary.com. Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Castrametation (accessed: March 23, 2008).
[iii] Thomas Wilhelm, Military Art and Science, (L. R. Hamersly & co.: 1881) http://books.google.com/books?id=GHcrAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA95&lpg=PA95&dq=what+is+the+history+of+the+word+castrametation%3F&source=web&ots=vnQF5eKGfo&sig=evmHB_wX1onpWxy-eQ9bsZHkZFc&hl=en (accessed online March 21, 2008).
Collectivist -adj. subscribing to the socialistic doctrine of ownership by the people collectively. noun a person who belongs to the political left. Source: collectivist. Dictionary.com. WordNet® 3.0. Princeton University. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/collectivist (accessed: March 01, 2008).
Conflate – tr. v. 1. To bring together; meld or fuse: “The problems [with the biopic] include . . . dates moved around, lovers deleted, many characters conflated into one” (Ty Burr). 2. To combine (two variant texts, for example) into one whole.
Counterfactual Conditional Concept – [(Robert W. Fogel) in Breisach p. 376)] “…establishes and measures what could have happened in order to understand what did happen.”
Covering Law Theory of History – (Breisach p. 379) hypothetic-deductive model
Cupidity – noun eager or excessive desire, esp. to possess something; greed; avarice.
Deism - n. The belief that God has created the universe but remains apart from it and permits his creation to administer itself through natural laws. Deism thus rejects the supernatural aspects of religion, such as belief in revelation in the Bible, and stresses the importance of ethical conduct. In the eighteenth century, numerous important thinkers held deist beliefs. Source: deism. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/deism (accessed: February 09, 2008).
Determinism – n. Philos. the doctrine that all events, including human action, are determined by causes regarded as external to the will. (p. 212)
Diachronic - adj. Of or concerned with phenomena, such as linguistic features, as they change through time. Source: Diachronic. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Diachronic (accessed: March 01, 2008).
Diachronic Studies – analysis of past language systems. See Diachronic above and synchronic studies below. (Breisach, 390).
Didactic - adj. 1. meant to instruct 2. (of a person) tediously pedantic (p. 216)
Discursive -adj. 1. rambling or digressive. 2. Philos. proceeding by argument or reasoning. (opp. INTUITIVE). (p. 222)
They distinguished themselves by behaving with aggressiveness, courage and élan, albeit being at times difficult to restrain.
The good folks at Princeton provide the following definition:
1. a feeling of strong eagerness (usually in favor of a person or cause); “they were imbued with a revolutionary ardor”; “he felt a kind of religious zeal” [syn: ardor]
2. distinctive and stylish elegance; “he wooed her with the confident dash of a cavalry officer” [syn: dash]
3. enthusiastic and assured vigor and liveliness; “a performance of great elan and sophistication”
The origins of the word élan are provided from Online Etymology Dictionary as follows:
1877, from Fr. élan, from élancer “to rush, dart,” from O.Fr. elancer, from e- “out” + lancer “to throw a lance,” from L.L. lanceare, from L. lancea “lance.”
elan. Dictionary.com. WordNet® 3.0. Princeton University. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/elan (accessed: June 08, 2008).
elan. Dictionary.com. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/elan (accessed: June 08, 2008).
Epistemological – adjective for the noun Epistemology which means, the theory of knowledge, esp. with regard to its methods and validation. (p. 262)
Fetishism - n. 1. Worship of or belief in magical fetishes. 2. Excessive attachment or regard. 3. The displacement of sexual arousal or gratification to a fetish. Source: fetishism. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/fetishism (accessed: February 09, 2008).
Erenic – adj. see Irenic
Ethicism – n. a doctrine that ethics and ethical ideas are valid and important; “his ethicism often led him to moralize”
Filio-pietistic – adj. Of or relating to an often immoderate reverence for forebears or tradition. Source: filiopietistic. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/filiopietistic (accessed: February 24, 2008).
Fons et origo – Latin. source and origin.
Hagiography- noun. The writing and critical study of the lives of the saints; hagiology.
Historical Presentism – reading the present into the past. [See post by same name here.]
Historicism – n. 1. a theory that history is determined by immutable laws and not by human agency. 2. a theory that all cultural phenomena are historically determined and that historians must study each period without imposing any personal or absolute value system. 3. a profound or excessive respect for historical institutions, as laws or traditions. 4. a search for laws of historical evolution that would explain and predict historical phenomena. Source: historicist. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/historicist (accessed: February 10, 2008).
Historicist - n., adj. (see historicism above)
Humanism historique – a humanism which acknowledged the mpact of large-scale forces on human life while respecting the role of the individual. Source: Breisach, 391.
Idiographic – relating to or dealing with the concrete, individual, or unique (compare to nomothetic). Source: idiographic. Dictionary.com. Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/idiographic (accessed: February 10, 2008).
Inculcate tr verb 1. To impress (something) upon the mind of another by frequent instruction or repetition; instill: inculcating sound principles. 2. To teach (others) by frequent instruction or repetition; indoctrinate: inculcate the young with a sense of duty. Source: inculcation. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/inculcation (accessed: March 09, 2008).
Immanent – adj. (p. 391) 1. indwelling; inherent. 2. (of the Supreme Being) permanently pervading the universe (opp TRANSCENDENT)
Indeterminism - n. Philos. 1. the doctrine that human actions, though influenced somewhat by preexisting psychological and other conditions, are not entirely governed by them but retain a certain freedom and spontaneity. 2. the theory that the will is to some extent independent of the strength of motives, or may itself modify their strength in choice.
Source: indeterminism. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/indeterminism (accessed: February 09, 2008).
Invigilate – verb 1. to keep watch. 2. British. to keep watch over students at an examination.
Irenic – adj Promoting peace; conciliatory.
Jesuitical – adm having qualities characteristic of Jesuits or Jesuitism; “Jesuitical education”
Marmoreal – adj. Resembling marble, as in smoothness, whiteness, or hardness.
Marx History Theory -
Metaphysical – adj. and n. (p. 497) 1. of or relating to metaphysics, 2. based on abstract general reasoning, 3. excessively subtle or theoretical, 4. incorporeal; supernational, 5. visionary, 6. (of poetry, esp. in the 17th c. in England) characterized by subtlety of thought and complex imagery.
Micro-history – the history of the structure of everyday life (Breisach, 392) (See Braudel)
Monotheism – n. the doctrine that this is only one God. (p. 512)
New Economic History – movement to make economic history a science in the natural science manner
New History -
Nomothetic – adj. relating to, involving, or dealing with abstract, general, or universal statements or laws (compare to idiographic). Source: nomothetic. Dictionary.com. Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/nomothetic (accessed: February 10, 2008).
Nihilism – n. Philosophy 1. An extreme form of skepticism that denies all existence. 2. A doctrine holding that all values are baseless and that nothing can be known or communicated. 3. Rejection of all distinctions in moral or religious value and a willingness to repudiate all previous theories of morality or religious belief. 4. The belief that destruction of existing political or social institutions is necessary for future improvement.
also Nihilism A diffuse, revolutionary movement of mid 19th-century Russia that scorned authority and tradition and believed in reason, materialism, and radical change in society and government through terrorism and assassination.
Psychiatry A delusion, experienced in some mental disorders, that the world or one’s mind, body, or self does not exist. Source: nihilistically. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/nihilistically (accessed: March 09, 2008).
Ontological – adj. 1. Of or relating to ontology. 2. Of or relating to essence or the nature of being. 3. Of or relating to the argument for the existence of God holding that the existence of the concept of God entails the existence of God. Source: ontological. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ontological (accessed: March 09, 2008).
Ordnance – “cannon, artillery,” a clipped form of ordinance (q.v.) which was attested from 1390 in the sense of “military materials, provisions of war;” a sense now obsolete but which led to those of “engines for discharging missiles” (c.1430) and “branch of the military concerned with stores and materials” (1485). The shorter word was established in these distinct senses by 17c. Ordnance survey (1833), official survey of Great Britain and Ireland, was undertaken by the government under the direction of the Master-General of the Ordnance (a natural choice, because gunners have to be skilled at surveying ranges and distances). Source: “ordnance.” Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. 10 May. 2008. .
Organicism – or·gan·i·cism (ôr-gān’ĭ-sĭz’əm) noun 1. The concept that society or the universe is analogous to a biological organism, as in development or organization. 2. The doctrine that the total organization of an organism, rather than the functioning of individual organs, is the principal or exclusive determinant of every life process. Source: organicism. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/organicism (accessed: April 05, 2008).
Paneconomic Historiography -
Pedantic - adj. 1. ostentatious in one’s learning. 2. overly concerned with minute details or formalisms, esp. in teaching.
Pelagian – noun 1. a follower of Pelagius, who denied original sin and believed in freedom of the will. – adj 2. of or pertaining to Pelagius or Pelagianism.
Pillorying – n. pl. pil·lo·ries
A wooden framework on a post, with holes for the head and hands, in which offenders were formerly locked to be exposed to public scorn as punishment.
tr.v. pil·lo·ried, pil·lo·ry·ing, pil·lo·ries
To expose to ridicule and abuse.
To put in a pillory as punishment.
Polytheism – n. the belief in or worship of more than one god. (p. 610)
Positivism – a philosophy developed by Auguste Comte that “demanded that all knowledge be based on directly observed phenomina and that all scientific endeavors aim at finding the general laws governing phenomena. Since only sensory experience counted, the whole structure of idealist philosophy collapsed; god, ideas, uniqueness, Ahnen (emphathetic intuition), and all. Only the positivist approach could yield knowledge reliable enough as a guide for the reshaping of human life; hence observing searching for regularities, generalizing from research results, and forming laws must be the tasks of all scientific disciplines.” Source: Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Ernst Breisach, (The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 2007). 274. An empirical approach to explanation.
prima facie – noun 1. at first appearance; at first view, before investigation. 2. plain or clear; self-evident; obvious. Source: prima facie. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/prima facie (accessed: March 09, 2008).
Providence – noun. 1. the foreseeing care and guidance of God or nature over the creatures of the earth. 2. God, esp. when conceived as omnisciently directing the universe and the affairs of humankind with wise benevolence. 3. a manifestation of divine care or direction. 4. provident or prudent management of resources; prudence. 5. foresight; provident care.Religion of Humanity – theory of August ComteSchema - noun 1) a diagram, plan, or scheme. 2) an underlying organizational pattern or structure; conceptual framework. 3) (in Kantian epistemology) a concept, similar to a universal but limited to phenomenal knowledge, by which an object of knowledge or an idea of pure reason may be apprehended. Source: schemata. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/schemata (accessed: March 01, 2008).
Quietism – noun 1. a form of religious mysticism taught by Molinos, a Spanish priest, in the latter part of the 17th century, requiring extinction of the will, withdrawal from worldly interests, and passive meditation on God and divine things; Molinism. 2. some similar form of religious mysticism. 3. mental or bodily repose or passivity. Source: quietism. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/quietism (accessed: March 09, 2008).
Recrudescence – noun a return of something after a period of abatement; “a recrudescence of racism”; “a recrudescence of the symptoms”
Military. to bend or curve back (the flank units of a military force) so that they face generally to the flank rather than the front.
refuse. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/refuse (accessed: August 08, 2009).
It is not surprising that McClellan did not immediately decide to employ his left wing under Franklin to relieve Harpers Ferry. In focusing on Frederick for the past several days, the Federal right had not only advanced quicker and farther, but the left had angled northward toward Frederick. In consequence Burnside was now considerably nearer Harpers Ferry than Franklin. Moreover, McClellan needed to refuse his left flank along the Potomac until he learned the meaning of the rumor that Jackson had recrossed the river at Williamsport. Lincoln may have jumped to the conclusion that the Confederates were retreating, but the possibility of a turning movement could not be dismissed lightly.
1. Joseph L. Harsh, Taken at the Flood : Robert E. Lee and Confederate Strategy in the Maryland Campaign of 1862 / [book on-line] (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1999, accessed 8 August 2009), 209-210; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102364919; Internet.
salient ˈsālyənt; -lēənt n.
1. a piece of land or section of fortification that juts out to form an angle.
2. an outward bulge in a line of military attack or defense. (see example below)
“The salient” at Spottsylvania
Due to the extremely close proximity of the opposing lines between the two forts, sniper fire was heavy and constant in this area. Potter’s division was located in the ravine a little more than one hundred yards from Elliott’s Salient, which itself was situated at an angle in the Rebel line of works, the closest at any part to the Union lines. Observers at the time felt the Union line had penetrated into the interior of the Confederates’ lines in this area after the last battle and was thus occupying a tenuous position. (2)
Schemata – plura for schema
Semiology – noun. the study of signs and symbols; semiotics.
Serial history – mentioned by Breisach (p. 393) but not well explained. References synthesis of multiple approaches. Explore further.
Slavophile – noun. 1. An admirer of Slavic peoples or their culture. 2. A person advocating the supremacy of Slavic culture, especially over western European influences, as in 19th-century Russia.
Source: slavophile. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/slavophile (accessed: February 10, 2008).
Sonorous – adj. 1. having a loud, full, or deep sound. 2 (of a speech, style, etc.) grand. (p. 773)
Structuralism – (Breisach, 390) French philosophical and literary movement. 1) A method of analyzing phenomena, as in anthropology, linguistics, psychology, or literature, chiefly characterized by contrasting the elemental structures of the phenomena in a system of binary opposition. 2) A school that advocates and employs such a method. Source: Structuralism. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Structuralism (accessed: March 01, 2008).
Sublimited War – Term for counterinsurgency in the epoc of the Vietnam conflict.
Synchronic – adj. 1) occurring or existing at the same time or having the same period or phase; “recovery was synchronous with therapy”- Jour.A.M.A.; “a synchronous set of clocks”; “the synchronous action of a bird’s wings in flight”; “synchronous oscillations.” 2) concerned with phenomena (especially language) at a particular period without considering historical antecedents; “synchronic linguistics.” 3) (of taxa) occurring in the same period of geological time. Source: Synchronic. Dictionary.com. WordNet® 3.0. Princeton University. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Synchronic (accessed: March 01, 2008).
Synchronic Studies – analysis of existing language systems. (Briesach, 390)
Teleology – 1. the doctrine that final causes exist. 2. the study of the evidences of design or purpose in nature. 3. such design or purpose. 4. the belief that purpose and design are a part of or are apparent in nature. 5. (in vitalist philosophy) the doctrine that phenomena are guided not only by mechanical forces but that they also move toward certain goals of self-realization.
n. pl. thal·as·soc·ra·cies
Naval or commercial supremacy on the seas.
[Greek thalassokratiā : thalassa, sea + -kratiā, -cracy.]
tha·las’so·crat’ (thə-lās’ə-krāt’) n.
Here is the context of Atkinson’s usage of thalassocracy.
If desert warfare seized the imagination of American Army commanders, the battleship held similar sway over many a sea dog. Her strategic value had long been eclipsed by nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers. As a tactical weapon she appeared doomed to follow the crossbow and blunderbuss. Yet, for traditionalists, no maritime silhouette better symbolized the Americanthalassocracy: the pugnacious, jutting bow the looming superstructure; the trio of triple-barreled turrets, each heavy as a frigate. When employed as a gun platform, she remained nonpareil, capable of tossing a shell with the heft of an automobile more than twenty miles. In the gulf war, her hour had come round at last. (Atkinson, 259)
n. A company of trained militia in England or America from the 16th to the 18th century.
[Contraction of trained band] Source: trainband. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trainband (accessed: April 09, 2008).
Reading For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America about military activity in America between 1607 – 1689, I ran across the word ”trainbands.” Authors Allan R. Millett and Peter Maslowski suggest that colonists brought with them “religious attitudes, economic views, political thoughts, and military ideals and institutions grounded in English history.”[i] This included all things military and “the colonists’ most revered military institution (the militia) and their most cherished military tradtion (fear of a standing army) both came from England.” [ii]
The adoption of the Elizabethan militia concept in the colonies was crucial to their survival. The basic tactical unit in all the colonies was the company or “trainband.” American Heritage Dictionary defines trainband as follows:
n. A company of trained militia in England or America from the 16th to the 18th century.
[Contraction of trained band]
[Photo credit: http://home.att.net/~Hillgartner/Pages/TillHist.htm
trainband. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trainband (accessed: April 09, 2008).
[i] Allan R. Millett, Peter Maslowski, For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America (New York: The Free Press, 1994), 4.
Transcendentalism – 1. A literary and philosophical movement, associated with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller, asserting the existence of an ideal spiritual reality that transcends the empirical and scientific and is knowable through intuition. 2. The quality or state of being transcendental. Source:
transcendentalist. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/transcendentalist (accessed: February 15, 2008). Russel Nye makes a case in his biography of George Bancroft that trancendentalism predated Emerson and was alive and well in Germany years before. Bancroft studied undered its thought leaders while in university there.
Totalitarian adj 1. characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control; “a totalitarian regime crushes all autonomous institutions in its drive to seize the human soul”- Arthur M.Schlesinger, Jr. 2. of or relating to the principles of totalitarianism according to which the state regulates every realm of life; “totalitarian theory and practice”; “operating in a totalistic fashion.” noun 1. an adherent of totalitarian principles or totalitarian government Source: totalitarian. Dictionary.com. WordNet® 3.0. Princeton University. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/totalitarian (accessed: March 09, 2008).
Triune – adj. Being three in one. Used especially of the Christian Trinity. noun. A trinity.
Utilitarianism – noun 1) The belief that the value of a thing or an action is determined by its utility. 2) The ethical theory proposed by Jeremy Bentham and James Mill that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. 3) The quality of being utilitarian: housing of bleak utilitarianism. Source: utilitarianism. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/utilitarianism (accessed: March 09, 2008).
Volksgeist - German word for Enlightenment
As I have taken to posting on some topics in a “series” format, and have had considerable interest in some of them, this page will serve as portal for links to the most popular. I hope this will serve to improve readability by putting - in one place.
Thank you for your interest.
A note on citing these materials. You are welcome to quote the works that appears here with, of course, the appropriate citations. I recommend that you refer to the guidance provided for online citations in the format/style in which you are writing (MLA, Turbian, etc).
The Civil War as Second American Revolution
Exploring Causes of the Civil War
Exploring Causes of the Civil War – Part VII: Political Discord, Slavery, and the Fight for Political Control
The Experience of Soldiers
Jomini on the Nature of War
Part I: Introduction is available here,
Part II: The Burgeoning Military Theorist here,
Part III: The Founder of Modern Strategy here,
Part IV: The Basics here,
Part V: Lines of Operation here, and
Part VI – The Conduct of War here.
Also, Scientific Optimism: Jomini and the U.S. Army
This page serves as a location for me to identify key philosophers and strategists within the sphere of military history and to profile them. I also hope to identify their ”body of work.” The intent is not to limit those I choose to profile to any specific war or period of time. Detail will be added as time permits.
Carl (Karl) von Clausewitz
Frederick the Great
Niccolo Machiavelli – profiled in the Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Helmuth von Moltke the Elder
Master of Arts in Military History
Reading lists for classes are posted as they become available.
Program of Study
American Military University’s M.A. in Military History can be viewed in detail here.
Great Military Philosophers (Complete, A)
Studies in U.S. Military History (Complete, A)
Historiography (Complete, A)
Historical Research Methods
The Civil War: Seminal Event in American History (Complete, A)
Civil War Strategy and Tactics (Complete, A)
Civil War Command and Leadership (Current Course)
Antebellum America: Prelude to Civil War (Complete, A)
Reconstruction and Post-Civil War America
Intelligence Operations in the Civil War
or Civil War Cavalry: Theory, Practice and Operations
or The Mexican – American War: 1846-1848
or Special Topic: Military History
or Independent Study: Military History
Comp Exam / Thesis Seminar
Master’s Capstone Seminar in Military History
TBD (3 hours)
Civil War Command and Leadership (Began October 5, 2009)
Here’s a quick summary: “a study of national, theater, and operational command structures of the Union and Confederacy, the leadership styles of key military leaders on both sides, and the evolution of command and control in the war. Major themes include the relationship between the commanders in chief and the generals who led the armies in the field, the relationships between the generals themselves, and the ways in which the relationships described above either served to facilitate or debilitate the causes those commanders served.”
I am VERY excited about the professor, Steven E. Woodworth!
- Ph.D., Rice University, 1987
- Professor of history at Texas Christian University
- Author, co-author, or editor of twenty-seven books you can view here
- Two-time winner of the Fletcher Pratt Award of the New York Civil War Round Table (for Jefferson Davis and His Generals and Davis and Lee at War)
- Two-time finalist for the Peter Seaborg Award of the George Tyler Moore Center for the Study of the Civil War (for While God Is Marching On and Nothing but Victory)
- Winner of the Grady McWhiney Award of the Dallas Civil War Round Table for lifetime contribution to the study of Civil War history can view here
Glatthaar, Joseph T. Partners in Command: The Relationships Between Leaders in the Civil War. New York: The Free Press, 1993.
McPherson, James M. Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Command-in-Chief. New York: Penguin, 2009
Woodworth, Steven E. Jefferson Davis and His Generals: The Failure of Confederate Command in the West. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1990.
Recommended Supplemental Reading:
Baugartner, Richard A. Blue Lightning-Wilder’s Mounted Infantry Brigade in the Battle of Chickamagua. Huntington, WV: Blue Acorn Press, 2007.
Bilby, Joseph G. A Revolution in Arms: A History of the First Repeating Rifles. Yardley, Pennsylvania: Westholme Publishing, LLC, 2006.
Blackford, William W. War Years with Jeb Stuart. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1945; Louisiana State University Press, 1993.
Bruce, Robert V. Lincoln and the Tools of War. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1956.
Buckeridge, J.O. Lincoln’s Choice. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company, 1956.
Davis, Burke. Jeb Stuart: The Last Cavalier. New York: Rinehart, 1957; New York: Wings Books, 1992.
Edwards, William B. Civil War Guns: The Complete Story of Federal and Confederate Small Arms: Design, Manufacture, Identification, Procurement, Issue, Employment, Effectiveness, and Postwar Disposal. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company, 1962; Secaucus, New Jersey: Castle, 1982.
Fishel, Edwin C. The Secret War for the Union: The Untold Story of Military Intelligence in the Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996.
Foote, Shelby. Civil War a Narrative-Fredericksburg to Meridian. New York, NY: Random House, 1986.
Freeman, Douglas Southall. Lee: An Abridgement in One Volume by Richard Harwell of the Four-Volume R.E. Lee. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1961.
Gallagher, Garry W. The American Civil War, This Mighty Scourge of War. Osceola, WI: Osprey, 2003.
Harsh, Joseph L. Taken at the Flood: Robert E. Lee and Confederate Strategy and the Maryland Campaign of 1862. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 1999.
________ Confederate Tide Rising: Robert E. Lee and the Making of Southern Strategy, 1861 – 1862. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 1998.
________ Sounding the Shallows: A Confederate Companion for the Maryland Campaign of 1862. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 2000.
Hartwig, D. Scott. “Who Would Not Be a Soldier: The Volunteers of ’62 in the Maryland Campaign.” In The Antietam Campaign, ed. Gary W. Gallagher. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Johnson, Robert Underwood and C.C. Buel. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, 4 vols., New York: Century, 1884-1888.
Jones, Wilbur D. “Who Lost the Lost Order?” Civil War Regiments: A Journal of the American Civil War, Volume 5:3, 1997.
Kidd, J.H. Personal Recollections of a Cavalryman with Custer’s Michigan Cavalry Brigade in the Civil War. Ionia, Michigan: Sentinel Printing Company, 1908; reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
Lee, Robert E. Lee the Soldier, ed. Gary W. Gallagher. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
Longacre, Edward G. From Union Stars to Top Hat: A Biography of the Extraordinary General James Harrison Wilson. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1972.
________. Lincoln’s Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of the Potomac. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 2000.
Marcot, Roy M. Spencer Repeating Firearms. Irvine, California: Northwood Heritage Press, 1983.
Murfin, James V. The Gleam of Bayonets: The Battle of Antietam and the Maryland Campaign of 1862. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965.
Rafuse, Ethan S. McClellan’s War: The Failure of Moderation in the Struggle for the Union. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2005.
Rowell, John W. Yankee Artillerymen: Through the Civil War with Eli Lilly’s Indiana Battery. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1975.
Sears, Stephen W. Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1983.
Sunderland, Glenn W. Lightning at Hoover’s Gap: Wilder’s Brigade in the Civil War. Cranbury, New Jersey: Thomas Yoseloff, 1969.
Thomas, Emory M. Bold Dragoon: The Life of J.E.B. Stuart. New York: Random House, 1988.
Urwin, Gregory J.W. Custer Victorious: The Civil War Battles of General George Armstrong Custer. Edison, New Jersey: The Blue and Grey Press, 1983.
U.S. War Department. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 128 vols. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1880-1901. Reprint, Harrisburg: Broadfoot Publishing Company, 1985.
Whittaker, Frederick. A Complete Life of General George A. Custer: Volume 1: Through the Civil War. New York: Sheldon & Company, 1876; reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.
Williams, Samuel C. “General John T. Wilder.” Indiana Magazine of History, September 1935.
Civil War Strategy and Tactics
Instructor: Jeffery Seymour, Auburn
This course is a study of the American Civil War with emphasis on operational contributions of Union and Confederate military leadership. Students examine Civil War battles on two levels: the strategic doctrine as formed by the major commanders and tactical developments that affected the conduct of battle at a lower echelon of command. Special emphasis is on the interplay between these levels in order to gain a comprehensive view of strategy and tactics in both armies from 1861-1865.
Griffith, Paddy. Battle Tactics of the Civil War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-300-04247-7
Harsh, Joseph L. Taken at the Flood: Robert E. Lee & Confederate Strategy in the Maryland Campaign of 1862. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 1999. ISBN: 0-87338-631-0
Jones, Archer. Civil War Command & Strategy: The Process of Victory and Defeat. NY: The Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-916635-7
McMurry, Richard M. Two Great Rebel Armies: An Essay in Confederate Military History. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8078-1819-4
McWhiney, Grady, and Perry D. Jamieson. Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8173-0229-8
Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and His Generals. NY: Random House, 1967. ISBN 0-394-70362-6 (Paperback)
Donald, David, H., ed. Why the North Won the Civil War. Westwood, MA: PaperBook Press, 1962. ISBN 0-684-82506-8
Student Reading Package (SRP) Articles: (note: SRP copies are available through AMU bookstore)
Jones, Archer. “Jomini and the Strategy of the American Civil War, A Reinterpretation.” Military Affairs 34 (December 1970): 127-131.
Shy, John. “Jomini.” In Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age, ed. Peter Paret, 143-185. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
Williams, T. Harry. “The Return of Jomini–Some Thoughts on Recent Civil War Writing.” Military Affairs 39 (December 1975): 204-206.
Antebellum America: Prelude to Civil War
Professor Steven J. Ramold, PhD: University of Nebraska – Lincoln
This course is an analysis of the conditions existing in the United States in the first half of the 19th century. The course focuses on the political, cultural/social, economic, security, leadership, and other issues that played roles in starting and shaping the Civil War. We will analyze the issues in the context of war and peace to determine whether or not such conflicts as civil wars can be avoided prior to their inception.
Stampp, Kenneth; The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Antebellum South, (Knopf, 1956.)
Foner, Eric; Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War With a New Introductory Essay,
Levine, Bruce; Half Slave and Half Free, Revised Edition: The Roots of Civil War, (Hill and Wang, 1992).
Holt, Michael F.; Political Crisis of the 1850s (Wiley, 1978).
Studies in U.S. Military History
The course examines the military heritage of the United States from the colonial period to the present. “Through a study of the literature of American military history, this course is a study of the individuals, military policies, postures, organizations, strategies, campaigns, tactics, and battles that have defined the American military experience.”
The reading list looks outstanding. Slight change in texts related to Korean War. I’ve posted these books on my virtual bookshelves that you can find here. I’ll post more about each of these as I get into the sememster. Recommended Reading Lists come primarily from the sources of the books below. One exception was: One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy 1890 – 1990 by George W. Baer which I’ve added to my library.
- American Civil War and The Origins of Modern Warfare
- A People’s Army: Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors in the 7-Year War
- The Army and Vietnam
- Crusade: The Untold Story of the Persian Gulf War
- For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America, Revised and Expanded
- A Revolutionary People at War: The Continental Army and American Character, 1775-1783
- War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War
- The Philippine War, 1899-1902
- Doughboys, the Great War, and the Remaking of America
- The GI Offensive in Europe: The Triumph of American Infantry Divisions, 1941-1945
- The Name of War: King Philip’s War and the Origins of American Identity
- Strategies of Containment: A Critical Reappraisal of American National Security Policy During the Cold War
- Roy E. Appleman. East of Chosin: Entrapment and Breakout in Korea, 1950. Reprint. Texas A&M University Press, 1991.
Instructor, Dr. Kelly C. Jordan
The class examines historiography, the study of historical thought from its emergence in the classical world to the present. It concentrates on how history has been interpreted, rather the facts of history themselves. The course contemplates the fundamental questions about the nature of history and investigates the relationships between theory and evidence in historical writing. Also explored are the varieties of narratives historians have used to reconstruct the past and many of the major historiographical schools and ideas that have developed over time.
- Bentley, Michael. Modern Historiography: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 1999.
- Breisach, Ernst. Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, 2nd Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
- Green, Anna, and Kathleen Troup, eds. The Houses of History: A Critical Reader in Twentieth-Century History and Theory. New York: New York University Press, 1999.
- Marius, Richard. A Short Guide to Writing about History. NY: Longmans, 1999
- Turabian, Kate L. Manual for Writers of Term Papers, 6th Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
- Maryilyn, Bernard. “The Challenge of Modern Historiography.” American Historical Review 87 (February 1982).
- Bentley, Michael. “Herbert Butterfield and the Ethics of Historiography.” History & Theory 44 (February 2005).
- Gorman, Jonathan. “Historians and Their Duties.” History & Theory 43 (December 2004).
- Nolte, Ernst. “The Relationship Between Bourgeois and Marxist Historiography.” History & Theory 14 (January 1975).
- Zagorin, Perez. “History, The Referent, and Narrative: Reflections on Postmodernism Now.” History & Theory 38 (January 1999).
Recommended Supplemental Reading
- Bambach, Charles R. Heidegger, Dilthey, and the Crisis of Historicism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.
- Barraclough, Geoffrey. Main Trends in History. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1979.
- Butterfield, Herbert. Man on His Past: The Study of the History of Historical Scholarship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1955.
- Charters David A., Marc Milner, and J. Brent Wilson, eds. Military History and the Military Profession. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1992.
- Collingwood, R. G. The Idea of History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
- Garraghan, Gilbert J. A Guide to Historical Method. New York: Fordham University Press, 1946.
- Gottschalk, Louis. Understanding History: A Primer of Historical Method. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1963.
- Hornblower, Simon, ed. Greek Historiography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
- Johnson, Allen. The Historian and Historical Evidence. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1930.
- Montagu, M. F. Ashley, ed. Toynbee and History: Critical Essays and Reviews. Boston: Porter Sargent, 1956. Powicke, F. M. Modern Historians and the Study of History: Essays and Papers. London: Odhams Press, 1955.
- Richardson, Alan. History Sacred and Profane. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1964.
- Snooks, Graeme Donald. The Laws of History. London: Routledge, 1998.
- Thompson, James Westfall, and Bernard J. Holm. A History of Historical Writing. New York: Macmillan, 1942.
The Civil War: Seminal Event in American History
Professor Charles E. White, PhD Duke University
A study of the political, economic, cultural, and social aspects of the Civil War. The course addresses the causes of the war, how a nation coped with the struggle across multiple dimensions, and how we dealt with the conflict’s aftermath.
Reading list required:
- Catton, Bruce. America Goes to War: The Civil War and its Meaning in American Culture. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1992.
- Clinton, Catherine. Life in Civil War America. Conshohosken, PA: Eastern Acorn Press, 1996.
- Craven, Avery O. The Coming of the Civil War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.
- Davis, William C. Cause Lost: Myths and Realities of the Confederacy. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1991.
- Linderman, Gerald F. Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War. NY: The Free Press, 1989.
- McPherson, James M. Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992
- __________. Drawn with the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
- Roland, Charles P. An American Iliad: The Story of the Civil War. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1991.
- Thomas, Emory M. The Confederacy as a Revolutionary Experience. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1991.
Recommended Supplementary Reading List:
- Adams, Charles. When in the Course of Human Events: Arguing the Case for Southern Secession. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.
- Beringer, Richard E., Hattaway, Herman, Jones, Archer, and Still, William N. Why The South Lost The Civil War. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986.
- Boritt, Gabor S., Editor. Lincoln, the War President. The Gettysburg Lectures. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
- Cornish, Dudley T. The Sable Arm: Black Troops in the Union Army, 1861-1865. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1987.
- Craven, Avery O. Civil War in the Making. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.
- Culpepper, Marilyn M. Trials and Triumphs: The Women of the American Civil War. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1991.
- Davis, Jefferson. The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. New York: De Capo Press, 1990.
- DiLorenzo, Thomas. The Real Lincoln: A New Look at Abraham Lincoln, His Agenda, and an Unnecessary War. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2003.
- Dwyer, John, Editor, The War Between the States: America’s Uncivil War. Denton, Texas: Bluebonnett Press, 2005.
- Dupuy, Ernest and Trevor Dupuy. The Compact History of the Civil War. NY: Hawthorn Books, 1960.
- Donald, David. Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967.
- Fahs, Alice and Waugh, Joan. The Memory of the Civil War in American Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
- Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. 3 vols. NY: Random House, 1958-74. (Paper)
- Gallman, The North Fights The Civil War: The Home Front. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1994.
- Graham, John Remington. A Constitutional History of Secession. Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Company, 2002.
- Grant, Susan-Mary and Parish, Peter, J., ed. Legacy of Disunion: The Enduring Significance of the American Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 2003.
- Hagerman, Edward. The American Civil War and the Origins of Modern Warfare: Ideas, Organization, and Field Command. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1988.
- Hattaway, Herman and Jones, Archer. How the North Won: A Military History of the Civil War. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983.
- Henderson, G.F.R. The Civil War: A Soldier’s View. A Collection of Civil War Writings by Col. G.F.R. Henderson. Ed. Jay Luvaas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.
- Jones, Archer. Civil War Command and Strategy: The Process of Victory and Defeat. New York: The Free Press, 1992.
- Jordan, Ervin L. Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.
- Kennedy, James and Walter. The South Was Right! Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Company, 1994.
- McDonald, Forrest. States’ Rights and the Union. University of Kansas Press, 2000.
- McMurry, Richard M. Two Great Rebel Armies: An Essay on Confederate Military History. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
- McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. NY: Ballantine Books, 1989.
- __________. Marching Toward Freedom: Blacks in the Civil War, 1866-1865. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1994.
- __________. What They Fought for: 1861-1865. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1994.
- McWhiney, Grady, and Jamieson, Perry D. Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage. University: University of Alabama Press, 1982.
- Miller, William Lee. Arguing About Slavery: The Great Battle in the United States Congress. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.
- Mitchell, Joseph B. Decisive Battles of the Civil War. NY: Fawcett World Library, 1955.
- Mitchell, Reid. Civil War Soldiers: Their Expectations and Their Experiences. New York: Touchstone, 1989.
- Morris, Thomas D. Southern Slavery and the Law, 1619-1860. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
- Roland, Charles P. The Confederacy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960.
- Sullivan, Walter, Editor. The War The Women Lived: Female Voices From The Confederate South. Nashville: J.S. Sanders and Company, 1995.
- Vandiver, Frank E. Their Tattered Flags: The Epic of the Confederacy. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
- Webb, James. Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America. New York: Broadway Books, 2004.
- Webb, Willard ed. Critical Moments of the Civil War. NY: Fountainhead Publisher, 1961.
- Wills, Garry. Lincoln At Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
- American Heritage. Battle Maps of the Civil War. Tulsa, OK: Council Oak Books, 1992.
- Chandler, David G. Atlas of Military Strategy: The Art, Theory and Practice of War, 1618-1878. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1980.
- Keegan, John, Ed. The Times Atlas of the Second World War. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1989.
- U.S. Military Academy. West Point Atlas Series. Wayne, NJ: Avery Publishing Group, 1986-94.
- Woodworth, Steven E. and Winkle, Kenneth J. Atlas of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Great Military Philosophers
Professor Charles E. White, PhD Duke University
The class examined the development of the military intellect by introducing the wisdom of the great military thinkers of the past. Among others, the philosophers the course addressed included Sun Tzu, Machiavelli, Clausewitz, Jomini, Mahan, Corbett, Douhet, Mitchell, Liddell Hart and Mao Tse-tung. Much of the reading was of primary sources although commentary and analysis sources were also excellent. Study of these great thinkers provided considerable insight into the nature and conduct of war at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels.
- Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Edited and Translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.
- Handel, Michael I. Masters of War: Classical Strategic Thought. 3rd Revised and Expanded Edition. London: Frank Cass, 2001.
- Jablonsky, David. Roots of Strategy (Book 4). Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1999.
- Liddell-Hart, Basil H. Strategy. 2nd Edition. NY: Meridian Books, 1991.
- Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Art of War. Translated with Commentary by Christopher Lynch. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
- Paret, Peter, ed. Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
- Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Translated by Samuel B. Griffith. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971
- Tse-Tung, Mao. The Art of War (Special Edition). El Paso, TX: El Paso Norte Press, 2005.
Recommended Supplementary Reading List:
- Addington, Larry. The Blitzkrieg Era and the German General Staff, 1865-1941. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1971.
- __________. The Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
- Asprey, Robert B. War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History. 2 Vols. New York: Doubleday and Company, 1975.
- Brodie, Bernard and Fawn. From Crossbow to H-Bomb. Rev. Ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973.
- Builder, Carl H. The Army in the Strategic Planning Process: Who Shall Bell the Cat? Bethesda: Concepts Analysis Agency Report, 1989:94-105.
- Challand, Gerard. Art of War in World History: From Antiquity to the Nuclear Age. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.
- Department of the Army. Field Manual 3-0, Operations. GPO, June 2001.
- Foerster, Roland G., ed. Generalfeldmarshall von Moltke: Bedeutung und Wirkung. Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 1992; Specifically, Michael D. Krause, “Moltke and the Origins of Operational Art” (pp.141-164) and “Moltke and Grant” (pp. 131-139).
- Gat, Azar. The Origins of Military Thought. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989/92.
- German Army. On the German Art of War: Truppenführung. Edited and Translated by Bruce Condell and David T. Zabecki. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001.
- Handel, Michael I., ed. Clausewitz and Modern Strategy. London, 1986.
- Howard, Michael. Clausewitz. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
- Hughes, Daniel J. Moltke on the Art of War: Selected Writings. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1995.
- Kissinger, Henry A. Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy. NY, 1957.
- Luvaas, Jay. “European Military Thought and Doctrine, 1870-1914,” in The Theory and Practice of War. Edited by Michael Howard. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975.
- Paret, Peter. Understanding War: Essays on Clausewitz and the History of Military Power. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.
- Rosinski, Herbert. Development of Naval Thought. Newport, 1977.
- Schnelling, Thomas C. The Strategy of Conflict. NY, 1968.
- Thibault, George, ed. The Art and Practice of Military Strategy. GPO, 1984.
- U.S. News & World Report. Triumph Without Victory: The Unreported History of the Persian Gulf War. NY: Random House, 1992
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